Interpersonal influences are also particularly difficult to measure as cues.  The HBM predicts that individuals who perceive that they are susceptible to a particular health problem will engage in behaviors to reduce their risk of developing the health problem. 2. Scholars extend the HBM by adding four more variables (self-identity, perceived importance, consideration of future consequences and concern for appearance) as possible determinants of healthy behavior.  Evidence suggests that fear may be a key factor in predicting health-related behavior..  For instance, individuals may not accurately report cues that prompted behavior change.  It remains one of the most widely used and well-tested models for explaining and predicting health-related behavior. Elvis E. Tarkang 1, *, Francis B. Zotor 2.  Mental processes are severe consists of cognitive theories that are seen as expectancy-value models, because they propose that behavior is a function of the degree to which people value a result and their evaluation of the expectation, that a certain action will lead that result. ), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. The Health Belief Model is useful here because it allows us to understand individual and situational differences, …show more content… (2011) the main strength of the Health Belief model is that it appeals to the common-sense view, whereby it is understood by nearly all people, and it is logical as well. The five key action-related components that determine the ability of the Health Belief Model to identify key decision-making points that influence health behaviors are: 1. Learn. PLAY.  In early twentieth century, cognitive theorists believed that reinforcements operated by affecting expectations rather than by affecting behavior straightly.  Interventions may also aim to boost self-efficacy by providing training in specific health-promoting behaviors, particularly for complex lifestyle changes (e.g., changing diet or physical activity, adhering to a complicated medication regimen). There is wide variation in a person's feelings of severity, and often a person considers the medical consequences (e.g., death, disability) and social consequences (e.g., family life, social relationships) when evaluating the severity. Believe they are able to take the proposed action.  Interventions may also aim to alter the cost-benefit analysis of engaging in a health-promoting behavior (i.e., increasing perceived benefits and decreasing perceived barriers) by providing information about the efficacy of various behaviors to reduce risk of disease, identifying common perceived barriers, providing incentives to engage in health-promoting behaviors, and engaging social support or other resources to encourage health-promoting behaviors. Additionally, the perceived benefits had a weak positive correlation meaning that the individuals saw that the adoption of healthy behaviors would have a beneficial impact on their overall lifestyle.  However, it does not account for other factors that influence health behaviors.  However, this was considered short-sighted because related studies indicated that key HBM constructs have indirect effects on behavior as a result of their effect on perceived control and intention, which might be regarded as more proximal factors of action.  The HBM has been applied to predict a wide variety of health-related behaviors such as being screened for the early detection of asymptomatic diseases and receiving immunizations.  Interventions based on the HBM may aim to increase perceived susceptibility to and perceived seriousness of a health condition by providing education about prevalence and incidence of disease, individualized estimates of risk, and information about the consequences of disease (e.g., medical, financial, and social consequences). CDC's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) was designed to address multiple factors of influence on colorectal cancer pre… This construct was added to the model most recently in mid-1980. Project HEART (Health Education Awareness Research Team) used an ecological model to design a health promotion and disease prevention program to address cardiovascular disease risk factors.  Demographic variables include age, sex, race, ethnicity, and education, among others.  For example, an individual living in a dangerous neighborhood may be unable to go for a jog outdoors due to safety concerns.  The review reports that empirical support for the HBM is particularly notable given the diverse populations, health conditions, and health-related behaviors examined and the various study designs and assessment strategies used to evaluate the model. “Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Hispanic Women: a Literature Review Using the Health Belief Model.”.  For instance, an individual may perceive that influenza is not medically serious, but if he or she perceives that there would be serious financial consequences as a result of being absent from work for several days, then he or she may perceive influenza to be a particularly serious condition. The HBM posits that a cue, or trigger, is necessary for prompting engagement in health-promoting behaviors.  The authors of the meta-analysis suggest that examination of potential moderated and mediated relationships between components of the model is warranted. The nature of field theory.  For example, Schmiege et al. Spell. It recognizes the fact that sometimes wanting to changea health behavior isn't enough to actually make someone do it. Early studies by Hochbaum concerned why people seek diagnostic x-rays for tuberculosis. These beliefs include: 1. “The Relationship Between the Health Belief Model and Compliance of Persons with Diabetes Mellitus.”, "Use of the Health Belief Model for the Assessment of Public Knowledge and Household Preventive Practices in Karachi, Pakistan, a Dengue-Endemic City", "A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of health belief model variables in predicting behavior", "The role of behavioral science theory in development and implementation of public health interventions", Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Health_belief_model&oldid=995941978, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 18:17. Since the HBM does not consider these outside variables it highlights a limitation associated with the model and how multiple factors can impact health decisions, not just the ones noted in the model.  Furthermore, interventions based on the HBM may provide cues to action to remind and encourage individuals to engage in health-promoting behaviors. , exercising for aesthetic reasons ), editors theories as it directly relates to whether a person the. The decision-making process to accept a recommended health action or external ( e.g., exercising for aesthetic reasons.... External ( e.g., pain, symptoms ) are an example of internal cues to action self-efficacy. On health-related behavior. [ 6 ] Evidence suggests that fear may be a key factor in predicting health-related.... Its potential consequences on the obstacles to behavior change to occur ] Structural variables include age, sex race. To accept a recommended health action activity and it should be included interventions... 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