The accomplishments of the CWA included 44,000 miles of new roads, 2,000 miles of levees, 1,000 miles of new water mains, 4,000 new or improved schools, and 1,000 new or improved airports . Instead managers tolerate incompetents, transfer them, or bump them upstairs. After all, isn’t the only alternative the evils of the spoils system?8 A number of years ago a Massachusetts Taxpayers Foundation surveyed state managers and found that, “No issue... evoked such a consistent and intense response as civil service hiring procedures. While civil construction activities are a precursor to most building (residential and non-residential) works, there is little commonality in practices between civil and building construction works. (2) Harry L. Hopkins, Spending to Save: The Complete Story of Relief, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1936, p. 116. Vol. General Inquiries: Vol. Like other New Deal emergency employment programs, the CWA was designed to put jobless Americans back to work and to use them on beneficial public projects. Other articles where Civil Works Administration is discussed: United States: Relief: Roosevelt also created the Civil Works Administration, which by January 1934 was employing more than 4,000,000 men and women. The Civil Works Administration was a subdivision of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration which provided work relief for a large number of men during the winter of 1933 and 1934. [email protected], Help | In government, it is a control function - and managers bitterly resent it. The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was an ambitious employment and infrastructure program created by President Roosevelt in 1935, … ... we asked a Personnel Director how much civil service limited the creativity of the bureaucracy... his answer, “How high over 100 percent can I go?” The need for reform has also been reflected in research such as that conducted by Hal Rainey. CWA Local 1180. As long as human exist, they will need house, roads and other building structures. He found that among public managers in 10 states, difficulty in rewarding employees, civil service hiring procedures, and difficulty in disciplining or dismissing employees were ranked first, fourth, and fifth in seriousness among 52 management problems.13 Here are additional reasons for reform:14 - Safeguards designed to prevent political abuse of employees can result in severe constraints on the ability to correct situations where employees are not sufficiently productive or effective in their current positions. Information written by MTAS staff was based on the law at the time and/or a specific sets of facts. This was a combination City/State/Federal (Civil Works Administration) project. But in modern times the term “civil service” has come to mean not the complete strata of officials who administer government but a more formalized set of standards by which many of them are selected; it reflects the idea that government functions best when it is staffed based on merit and not political patronage.1 Most employees who work under these formal civil service systems are chosen based on written examinations. The Works Progress Administration of the federal government (also known as Work Projects Administration) was the major relief agency of Franklin D. Roosevelt New Deal; Supplanting the Civil Works Administration (an emergency temporary work relief program, 1933-34), which was the original sponsor of a variety of state and municipal, relief projects, the WPA employed over 2 million … 37, No. 134.17 Osborne and Gaebler. Instead, an incremental approach which adjusts specific civil service provisions, may be best.16 This being the case, examining an individual jurisdiction in which civil service is present and tailoring reforms based on that jurisdiction’s capabilities, traditions, and future- orientation, is likely the most effective approach. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the pros and cons related to civil service, and to offer suggestions for improvements. Another major issue of the post Civil War era was reforming the Civil Service system. Projects included planting trees, building flood barriers, and fighting forest fires. The jury system works by using a … In fact there are significant risks that are unique to the civil construction industry. 26, No. In general it appears as though the primary benefit of civil service, and hence its primary application, has been in cities with “politically driven” forms of government such as the weak or strong-mayor forms. In Feb. 1934, the federal government allotted $186,000. They have to hire most employees from lists of those who have taken written civil service exams. Remarking on the program a few years after its termination, Harry Hopkins wrote: “Long after the workers of CWA are dead and gone and these hard times forgotten, their effort will be remembered by permanent useful works in every county of every state. - Streamlining the pay structure by utilizing a smaller number of broad pay bands. University of California It is imperative that an adequate set of Personnel Policies is in place so that the rationale for initiating civil service for all remaining employees is partially removed. Roosevelt also created the Civil Works Administration, which by January 1934 was employing more than 4,000,000 men and women. The administration, as per the definition states that it is the right execution of things and work has done in an office. Some include:18 - Reducing constraints on managerial discretion (such as those imposed by civil service) and replacing these with clear protections for those who may face discrimination (such as those provided by comprehensive personnel policies). - Existing systems serve as a disincentive rather than an incentive for performance improvement. The result is a system in which managers cannot manage, deadwood is kept on, and morale goes through the floor. Prentice Hall, Englewood, N.J. 78. For example, they are much more likely to feel that formal procedures make it difficult to fire a poor manager or reward a good one with higher pay. [email protected] Pros and Cons of Public Employment Believed by many to be among the most secure work environments, jobs in government are highly sought after. Some of the advantages or pros of civil engineering career is that: It will always have high demand. For our purposes here then, we will define civil service as the formalized set of procedures and regulations under which a defined set of employees work. Among its numerous projects, this temporary program employed over 10,000 nurses in a variety of health care settings, not only offering work for unemployed nurses but also providing the delivery of essential services to the needy. 118.8 Olson. People will ride over bridges they made, travel on their highways, attend schools they built, navigate waterways they improved, do their public business in courthouses and state capitols which workers from CWA rescued from disrepair. These systems are not standardized, and they vary from city to city in terms of their procedures and regulations. Over the past twenty years there has been much interest in reform. The presence or absence of a quality set of Personnel Policies and Procedures is another important consideration when analyzing civil service. Alarmed by rising costs, Roosevelt dismantled the CWA in 1934, but… Read More It refers to any government position (in all three branches of government) that is an appointed position rather than an elected one. 1. Hard Truths/Tough Choices: An Agenda For State and Local Reform. But, in general, civil engineers shall never run out of job or scope. 326-347.4 Olson, Walter. Civil Works Administration (CWA) _ _. Civil service systems are probably least needed, and are thus the greatest hindrance to effective management, in cities with either the Council-Manager or Council-Administrator forms of government (or other professionally-based forms). The CWA received funding from the Public Works Administration ($400 million), the Federal Emergency Relief Administration ($89 million), and an appropriation from Congress ($345 million) . Public Works Administration Fact 9: Ickes was cautious about awarding contracts and authorized a minuscule amount of PWA money of $110 million in 1933 from the $3.3 billion that had been allocated.He came into conflict with Harry Hopkins who poured unallocated PWA funds into the Civil Works Administration (CWA) to finance light construction jobs helping unskilled and unemployed people … 129.18 Winter. How can merit be served, for example, when supervisors are only allowed three choices from among hundreds of possible candidates for a job? Legacy of the CCC Although the organization does not exist today, over 97,000 miles of fire roads were built, over 3 billion trees were planted and over 800 parks were built. (3) Robert D. Leighninger, Jr., Long-Range Public Investment: The Forgotten Legacy of the New Deal, Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2007, p. 47. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the pros and cons related to civil service, and to offer suggestions for improvements. More specifically, the CWA was designed to be a short-lived program to help jobless Americans get through the dire winter of 1933-34 . In many cases it clearly spells out the specific criteria needed in order to move upward (“through rank”) in the workforce. Two special assistants provide day to day support to the USACE Civil and Military Programs and support to other agencies. 4, November, 1993. 3 Vigoda, Eran. - Classification - Civil service jobs are classified on a graded scale, and pay within each classification is determined by longevity, not performance. 57. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the pros and cons related to civil service and to offer suggestions for improvements. (6) Ibid. Let us check out the pros of being a civil engineer first – Pros of being a civil engineer – Good pay: Skilled and qualified civil engineers often get to enjoy decent pay packages. Vol. The very change to such a form will in itself move toward implementation of a merit-based system. The laws referenced may have changed and/or the technical advice provided may not be applicable to your city or circumstances. Often they have to take the top scorer, or one of the top three scorers - regardless of whether that person is motivated or otherwise qualified (in San Francisco, if two applicants tie for the top score, the one with the highest social security number gets the job). This administration was a part of the new deal presented and executed by FDR so that the lives of employees would be a little bit easier, and filled with less hardship during the depression. New York, New York. 125 - 127.12 Rainey, Hal G. “Perceptions of Incentives in Business and Government: Implications For Civil Service Reform.” Public Administration Review. Civilian Conservation Corps (1933–42), one of the earliest New Deal programs, established to relieve unemployment during the Great Depression by providing national conservation work primarily for young unmarried men. The civil service movement thus served to drastically improve local government operations at a time when professional management had yet to emerge. Here are the Tennessee cities larger than 10,000 in population, their populations, and the employees to whom civil service regulations apply:City Population Employees Under Civil ServiceGreeneville 15,274 Police, Fire, and many others Dyersburg 17,452 Police Morristown 25,402 Police and Fire Columbia 33,055 Most except department heads Johnson City 56,194 Police and Fire Jackson 59,643 Police and Fire Knoxville 173,890 Most except department heads Nashville 545,915 Most, with some exceptions Memphis 680,768 Most, with some exceptions It should be noted that only 3 of these cities operate under something equivalent to a “Council-Manager” form of government. 6. The administration, as per the definition states that it is the right execution of things and work has done in an office. - The system may involve a rigid and cumbersome set of procedures that cause excessive delays. Only 9 cities in Tennessee with populations above 10,000 have these formalized civil service systems (that’s about 15% of cities in this population group). 999.6 Osborne, David and Ted Gaebler. - There may be lack of management accountability for personnel actions because management has little discretion regarding hiring and firing decisions. Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. This will provide managers with greater flexibility when rewarding employees. www.mtas.tennessee.edu. We had two hundred thousand CWA projects” . A.2 DEFINITIONS The following words, expressions and abbreviations shall have the meanings assigned to them except … The paper will also offer suggestions for the reform of civil service, especially as it applies to Tennessee. However even in these systems there typically runs a strong commitment to merit-based hiring (exemplified by the merit-based hiring of the chief Administrator position itself). What Is The Difference Between Civil Service and Public Service? MANUAL FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING WORKS COAL INDIA LIMITED Civil Engineering Department 10, N.S.Road, Kolkata-700 001 Updated upto 14-12-2004 JULY 2004 However, it is likely that civil service has contributed to a reduction in the union activity in some jurisdictions. Pros of a Career in Business Administration; Above-average wages in most cases* Career opportunities in a variety of fields (marketing, finance, management, etc. - Placing limits on the effects of seniority as it pertains to hiring, promotion and downsizing. 1610 University Avenue Public managers have resigned themselves to the entrenchment of incompetents and shirkers at every level, as a necessary evil of government service. 1.9 Osborne and Gaebler. More discussion on this relationship can be found below.Benefits of Civil Service Systems Civil Service systems in the United States emerged around 1877-1883 when both New York City and Brooklyn passed the first local civil service regulations. Consider the following reasons not to buy into the business school hype: Public administration careers are available in both the private and public sector which opens the door to a variety of career paths. It should be noted that this may be true to a somewhat lessor degree under the Council- Administrator form, where the council may retain all or some of the responsibility for hiring or dismissal and therefore may continue to see patronage as a tool of political gain. Excellent retirement and health benefits are what attract many people to these jobs. 505 McCone Hall It also reduced political influence in the hiring, promotion and dismissal of employees. As such the alteration or elimination of civil service should rest partly on the presence or development of a quality set of Personnel Policies and Procedures. In most cases where civil service is present it does not apply to the entire workforce. This is because these forms are already merit-based in nature (for example, most of these forms go so far as to denote, usually in their charters, that the manager must be hired based on “qualifications and merit”), and practices associated with “merit” commonly extend throughout the workforce, as there is no advantage to be gained through “spoils” or patronage-based hiring, dismissal, or promotion. This will allow greater flexibility in staffing. This being the case, in addition to the alteration of existing civil service regulations for those to whom it does apply, each jurisdiction should also examine its current Personnel Policies so that they adequately address conditions of employment for the remainder of the workforce. By January 1934, the Civil Works Administration had provided employment to more than four million Americans, including over 200,000 Ohioans. In nearly all cases these regulations are administered by a “third party” committee usually comprised of citizens appointed by both the city governing body and those employees affected by the civil service program. Civil service versus political appointments. (7) See note 2 at p. 120. So all in all it is apparent that civil service can greatly constrain key personnel decisions, and can possibly lead to mediocrity. In a typical job - in a police department for example... managers have to promote from among those already in the proper career track who have scored highest on the promotional exam. Courses after civil engineering . Other potential reforms have also been identified. part of his New Deal plan to lift the country out of the Great Depression by reforming the financial system and restoring the economy to pre-Depression levels Faced with continued high unemployment and concerns for public welfare during the coming winter of 1933-34, FERA institute the Civil Works Administration (CWA) as a short-term measure to get people to work. 124. The vast majority of the jobs in the executive branch are ‘civil service’ jobs for full-time, tenured government employees. They also vary in terms of the groups of employees to whom they apply. However, it should also be noted that the rigidity of many civil service testing and advancement procedures have given rise to numerous criticisms, many of which point to the absence of other important hiring or advancement criteria (such as performance). And you might be wondering what are the pros and cons of business management, in this case. “Fixing the Civil Service Mess.” City Journal. Alarmed by rising costs, Roosevelt dismantled the CWA in 1934, but the persistence of high unemployment led him to make another about-face. See Also: HOPKINS, HARRY; NEW DEAL; WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION (WPA). Privacy & Terms, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=14548. 5.5 Frant, Howard. He found that when comparing managers in government systems utilizing civil service with business managers the government managers perceive a weak relationship between performance and pay, promotion, job security, and recognition from the organization. 73-93.14Matzer, John Jr. “Perspectives On Civil Service Reform.” in Creative Personnel Practices: New Ideas For Local Government. Civil Works Administration. It would also help keep from another depression happening, … Fax: (865) 974-0423 In short, one reform size may not fit all. In these cases civil service has partly helped to ensure the non-politicized appointment and advancement of the workforce. Introduction to Civil Service Traditionally, “civil service” generally refers to the group of people employed in the administration of government. The only notable absence in this regard are testing requirements, and especially those pertaining to police and fire. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. It has been especially effective in jurisdictions where elected officials are responsible for the hiring, discipline, and dismissal of line employees and where strong personnel policies and procedures are not in place to guide these efforts. - Many jurisdictions may already have regulations granting a “property right” to employees, and thus additional guarantees (such as those provided by civil service) are not needed. …12, 1933, Congress established a Federal Emergency Relief Administration to distribute half a billion dollars to state and local agencies. In each of these cases civil service was a part of a broader “reform movement” which was sweeping the country. In other communities, changing to a Council-Manager type form of government would be a viable option when considering civil service reform. A person who has successfully completed an MPA degree program can work in a government office, in a company’s corporate office, or with a non-profit organization. Not all governments, though, … The paper does not pretend to cover all aspects of civil service, because such systems vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but instead is meant to provoke thought and discussion aimed at improving our ability to govern - and to motivate and manage the employees in our local government workforce. The term normally excludes elected officials but includes the vast bulk of those who see to the daily functioning of the public sector. They also tend to feel that the personnel procedures governing their organizations constrain the administration of incentives in that they make it harder to associate such incentives with a manager’s performance. During its existence, the CWA paid approximately forty-nine thousand dollars in wages to Ohioans, helping them to meet their needs during the Great Depression. This is largely due to the fact that the Manager/Administrator position is not elected, but appointed. In these cases civil service has greatly contributed to the professionalism of local workforces. And you might be wondering what are the pros and cons of business management, in this case. President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized Hopkins to set up the Civil Works Administration (CWA) in November, 1933. Here again, the removal of political influence in the workplace, be it either real or perceived, may contribute significantly to employee satisfaction.3 The effect of these dynamics may be that unionization of the public workforce has been slowed, or in some cases even prevented, through the application of a quality civil service program. Perhaps most important, the CWA experiment greatly increased support for public employment, creating pressure both within the New Deal and in Congress for the administration to end the general relief grant program and launch the WPA in 1935. Slow salary growth: Cost-of-living adjustments authorized for government employees rarely keep up with inflation, and merit raises are given to only a small percentage of top performers. For big salary increases, government employees have to compete for vacant positions with higher salaries. The Pros and Cons of Privatizing Government Functions Outsourcing may seem like a perfect solution for deficit-plagued governments, but the morning after can bring some unpleasant surprises. 6420B, under the power granted to President Roosevelt by Title II of the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 . The accomplishments of the CWA included 44,000 miles of new roads, 2,000 miles of levees, 1,000 miles of new water mains, 4,000 new or improved schools, and 1,000 new or improved airports . Later in 1933 came the Public Works Administration, headed by Interior Secretary Harold Ickes and the Civil Works Administration, under Roosevelt’s top aide Harry Hopkins. Constantly expanded and diversified to offer use for the special skills and training of different types of workers, the CWA program finally extended its scope to almost every kind of community activity. 1993. While civil service has thus served to improve operations in a number of jurisdictions it has also come under increasing attack, as certain modifications to civil service rules have served to reduce its positive effects. If complete elimination of civil service is considered as a “reform” option, then the city must be sure that an adequate Personnel Policies and Procedures document is in place to address many of the issues typically found in a civil service program - including procedures for hiring, discipline, dismissal, grievances, etc.. Donate | Should public managers have freedom to do the same? Each of the “positives” and “negatives” should be weighed in light of current needs and future directions, then an informed decision regarding alteration or elimination of civil service take place.1 Citywide Administrative Services. (4) See note 2 at p. 117. A person who has successfully completed an MPA degree program can work in a government office, in a company’s corporate office, or with a non-profit organization. The quality of the college from which one pursues the course plays and … As the CWA program drew to a close in March 1934, it was replaced by the Emergency Work Relief Program of FERA. How can merit be served when pay is determined mainly on the basis of time on the job? The term "Civil Service" was coined in 1872. These include This is because the “spoils” and “patronage” systems associated with the need for reform are not typically present in systems with the council-manager form. For example, one author has noted that the “legal straightjacket” on the hiring process is almost universally blamed for a widespread sense that the overall quality of employees is declining.4 In addition, with the advent of professional management (largely through the emergence of the Council-Manager form of government) the need for civil service has been reduced. The Civil Works Administration was a short-lived U.S. job creation program established by the New Deal during the Great Depression to rapidly create … 26-30. - The system may not facilitate productivity improvement efforts. Congress establishes the Civil Works Administration. 6420B, November 9, 1933, University of California Santa Barbara, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=14548, accessed February 9, 2015. Conclusion In conclusion it should be noted that Civil Service has a long and varied history. We’re sure we went through some of the most highlighted pros, that most definitely out-weigh the scarcity of the cons. Always consult with your city attorney or an MTAS consultant before taking any action based on information posted to this website. An additional benefit of civil service may be its influence on unionization (which may or may not be considered a benefit, depending on which side of the unionization debate a decision- maker resides). There are a number of both pros and cons which surround civil service. 24-25.11 Osborne and Gaebler. Vol. Help us create more content like you see here: Sign up for The Fireside, The Lowdown, and other news. Berkeley CA 94720-4740 The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was an ambitious employment and infrastructure program created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935, during the bleakest years of the Great Depression. While civil service has thus served to improve operations in a number of jurisdictions it has also come under increasing attack, as certain modifications to civil service rules have served to reduce its positive effects. The width of paving was reduced… read more “Rules and Governance in the Public Sector: The Case of Civil Service.” American Journal of Political Science. This has been substantiated in research which has shown that the presence of civil service is between 28% to 46% lower (depending on city size) in council manager cities than in other forms of government such as the strong or weak mayor systems.5. We travel on these roads everyday, pass by thousands of trees on our way, and use these parks for child's In almost all of these cases the regulations associated with civil service are codified in the city’s charter, or they have important components adopted in the charter by reference. This being the case the elimination of civil service should remain a “reform” option in these cities as well. The CWA was created on November 9, 1933 by Executive Order No. 2000. Website: Another study found that civil service actually increased spending, and that such increases were associated with how long civil service had been in effect.15Civil Service Reform In terms of reform itself, it has been noted that a wholesale overhaul of civil service may not be the best solution in all cases, and in fact may not be politically acceptable in many circumstances. Managers uniformly find that it hinders rather than helps them hire suitable employees, and with some bitterness cite civil service as the most serious impediment to accomplishing their mission.”9 The 1993 National Commission on the State and Local Public Service put it this way:10Many state and local governments have created such rule-bound and complicated systems that merit is often the last value served. “Civil Service Reform: Examining State and Local Government Cases.” Public Administration Review. - There’s an old saying: “Government workers are like headless nails: you can get them in but you can’t get them out.” The process of (dismissal) is so time consuming and difficult that few managers ever fire anyone. The cost of the project was $243,000. at 51. 5, September-October 1979, 443-444.13 Elling, Richard C. “Civil Service, Collective Bargaining and Personnel-Related Impediments to Effective state Management: A Comparative Assessment.” Review of Public Personnel Administration. The CWA provided a psychological and physical boost to its 4 million workers! That’s why the pros and cons of a jury system deserve a periodic review. This is because many civil service regulations, when coupled with a quality set of personnel policies and procedures, can in effect replace many provisions found in union contracts. 1992. In fact it is now a requirement for most Tennessee communities that a set of Personnel Policies and Procedures be in place, and that they contain the items mentioned above as well as a “grievance procedure.” This results in a document which then addresses key provisions of many civil service programs. https://quizlet.com/35912019/new-deal-programs-pros-and-cons-flash-cards The CWA ended in July of 1934 (although most employment ended by March 31, 1934) , but its success was so remarkable and its closure so clearly felt that it was recreated in the form of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in 1935; and the WPA was led by some of the same administrative workers from FERA and CWA. Pros. - The system may discourage the retention of the highest-quality employees by rewarding longevity rather that performance. Public administration careers are available in both the private and public sector which opens the door to a variety of career paths. - Promotion - Promotions are controlled by the personnel department, not the manager. Depending on the type of charter some provisions may be more difficult to alter than others. Can greatly constrain key personnel decisions, and morale goes through the floor major company hires individuals who hold MPA. Unique to the professionalism of local workforces the impact of civil service generally.: HOPKINS, HARRY ; New DEAL ; Works PROGRESS Administration, as a disincentive than., government employees company hires individuals who hold an MPA degree 7 ) see note 2 at p. 117 or. Is to discuss some of the most highlighted pros, that most definitely out-weigh the scarcity of the Pendleton in. Unemployed workers on its payroll [ 3 ] be wondering what are the pros and cons of business management in! 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