# physical properties of elements on the periodic table

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January 8, 2018

Notice how Na after in the second I.E, Mg in the third I.E., Al in the fourth I.E., and so on, all have a huge increase in energy compared to the proceeding one. Additionally, as the atomic number increases, the effective nuclear charge also increases. Lanthanides and Actinides are: (a) alkali earth metals; (b) transition metals; (c) metalloids; (d) alkali metals; (e) none of these. Most of the work that was done to arrive at the periodic table that we know can be attributed to a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev. Uses in knowing the Periodic Properties of Elements, Useful Relationships from the Periodic Table, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org, (Exothermic) The electron affinity is positive, (Endothermic) The electron affinity is negative, Predicting greater or smaller atomic size and radial distribution in neutral atoms and ions, Measuring and comparing ionization energies, Comparing electron affinities and electronegativities, Comparing metallic character with other elements; its ability to form cations, Predicting what reaction may or may not occur due to the trends, Determining greater cell potential (sum of oxidation and reduction potential) between reactions, Completing chemical reactions according to trends, The History of the Periodic Table- Part 1 of 2, Hutchinson, John. This causes the atomic radius to decrease. Brittleness 3. For example, Chlorine would have a Z value of 17 (the atomic number of Chlorine). From left to right, the atomic number (z) of the elements increases from one period to the next (horizontal). Most metals are good conductors of heat and electricity, are malleable and ductile, and are moderate to high melting points. Melting destroys the arrangement of atoms in a solid, therefore the amount of heat necessary for melting to occur depends on the strength of attraction between the atoms. In contrast, the smaller nuclear charge, the lesser pull the nucleus has on the outer electrons, and the larger atomic radii. A column of elements down the table is called a group.There are 18 groups in the standard periodic table. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Therefore, it requires less energy to remove one of their valence electrons. Periodic Table of Videos, accessed December 2014. Elements in a group have electrons arranged in similar ways, according to the number of valency electrons, which gives them similar chemical properties (they behave in similar ways). $X_{(g)} + e^- \rightarrow X^- + \text{Energy}$, $X_{(g)} + e^- + \text{Energy} \rightarrow X^-$. 4. The periodic table is a listing of the elements according to increasing atomic number that is further organized into columns based on similar physical and chemical properties and electron configuration. Since the number of protons is also increasing, the effective nuclear charge increases across a period. Color 2. Explore the physical properties of the chemical elements through this periodic table. Electrical conductivity 6. The periodic table is arranged in rows and columns in which the elements have similar properties. Students can easily find S by using the atomic number of the noble gas that is one period above the element. Of all the 118 known elements, 11 are gaseous, 2 are liquid, and the remainder are solids under ordinary conditions. Electron Affinity Definition in Chemistry, Ionic Radius Trends in the Periodic Table, Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College, Electron Affinity Generally Decreases Moving Down a Group. These can typically be explained by their electron configuration. The higher the electronegativity, the greater its ability to gain electrons in a bond. Actinides form the bottom row and are radioactive. Therefore, these elements take on the nonmetallic character of forming anions. Reduction is a reaction that results in the gaining of an electron. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. Which equation do you expect to occur? Example: Melting point of HF should be approximately -145 °C based off melting points of HCl, HBr, and HI, but the observed value is -83.6°C. What are compounds that contain a halogen called? 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